Know Your State – Himachal Pradesh Part 1

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Jachh Village Jauni Valley Mandi HP

Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh is almost wholly mountainous with altitudes ranging from 350meters to 6,975 meters above the mean sea level. It is located between Latitude 30O 22’ 40’’ N to 33O 12’ 20’’ N and Longitude 75O 45’ 55’’ E to 79O 04’ 20’’ E. It has a deeply dissected topography, complex geological structure and a rich temperate flora in the sub-tropical latitudes.

Physiographically division of Himachal Pradesh.

  1. Wet Sub-temperate zone – Palampur and Dharamsala of Kangra District, Jogindernagar area of Mandi district and Dalhousie area of Chamba district.
  2. Humid Sub-temperate zone – districts of Kullu, Shimla, parts of Mandi, Solan, parts of Chamba, parts of Kangra and Sirmour.
  3. Dry temperate-alpine High lands – Lahaul-Spiti district, Pangi of Chamba district and Kinnaur district.
  4. Humid Sub-tropical zone – parts of district Sirmaur, Bhattiyat valley of district Chamba, Nalagarh area of district Solan, Dehragopipur and Nurpur areas of district Kangra.
  5. Sub-Humid Sub-tropical zone – Some areas of district Sirmour and Indora area of district Kangra.

Geography and Climate of Himachal Pradesh

Himachal is in the western Himalayas and has an area of 55,673 square kilometres, Due to extreme variation in elevation, great variation occurs in the climatic conditions of Himachal. The climate varies from hot and sub humid tropical in the southern tracts to, with more elevation, cold, alpine, and glacial in the northern and eastern mountain ranges.

The climate varies between hot and humid in the valley areas to freezing cold in the home of perpetual snow of higher altitudes. The average annual rainfall in Himachal Pradesh is about 160 cms. Climatically Himachal Pradesh can be divided into three zones (I) The outer Himalayas, (ii) The Inner Himalayas and (iii) Alpine zone. The first zone gets annual rainfall between 150 cms and 175 cms. In second it varies between 75 cms to 100 cms and the Alpine zone rarely have any rainfall.

Important Historical moment of Himachal Pradesh

    1. 15th April, 1948 – Himachal Pradesh came into existence as a part – “C” State of Indian Union on 15th April, 1948 by integrating 30 big and small hill states.
      • The initial princely states those were part of newly establish state, Baghat, Bhajji, Baghal, Bija, Balsen, Bushehar, Chamba, Darboti, Deloth-Dhadi, Dhami, Ghund, Jubbal, Khaneti Kyarhoti, Kumarsain, Kunnihar, Kuthar, Mandi, Madhan, Mahlog, Mangal, Kot (Ratesh), Keonthal, Rawinigarh, Sangri, Sirmour Suket, Tharoch, Theog.
      • Four districts were formed of these states namely – Chamba, Mahasu, Mandi and Sirmour with a area of 27,169 square kilometers.  
      •  Bilaspur was integrated with Himachal Pradesh in 1954
    2.  Kinnaur district was formed in 1960 as a separate district of Chini Tehsil of Mahasu district.
    3. On 1st Nov 1966, with the Punjab State was reorganised, hilly areas of Kangra, Kullu, Shimla and some part of Hoshiarpur were merged with Himachal Pradesh and four new districts were created namely: Kullu, Lahul & Spiti, Kangra, and Shimla.
    4. Statehood Day, 25th January, 1971 –  On this day Himachal Pradesh get conferment of Statehood.
    5. On 1st Sept 1972, two more districts were formed by trifurcation of Kangra as Hamirpur and Una.
    6. On 1st Sept 1972 Mahasu and Shimla were reorganised as Shimla and Solan districts.